(* 16.12. 1804 in Bar, † 12.12. 1889 in St. Petersburg)
- 1839 Herausgabe eines "Lexikon der reinen und angewandten Mathematik"
- 1867 Bau des "Selbstrechners" "Samostschoty"
- Mathematik-Professor an der Universität Petersburg
- Der Vorname wird in der Literatur mit "W. Ja." oder "Wiktor Jakowlewitch" angegeben
Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovskiy was born on December 16th, 1804 in Bar, of the Vinnitsa region in the Ukraine. In 1825 he obtained a doctorate in Paris and later studied and taught at St. Petersburg as a professor (1846-1880). His scientific work was done at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
Bunyakovsky published over 150 works on mathematics and mechanics. He is best known for his discovery of the Schwarz inequality, published in a monograph in 1859, 25 years before Schwarz. He made an important contribution to number theory; he gave a new proof to the Gauss law of quadratic reciprocity. He also performed researches on geometry, applied mechanics and hydrostatics. In 1853, he examined Euclid's fifth postulate, giving a critical account of previous attempts to prove it. He then attempted his own proof, unaware of Lobachevskiy's invention of non-Euclidean geometry 25 years before, and, although it was published, it was rejected by Ostrogradskiy when submitted for publication through the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
In 1867, Bunyakovskiy made an adding machine, which he called "Samoschoty" (Auto-Abacus), mainly for census needs...
V. Y. Bunyakovskiy also developed a number of calculating methods for his instrument. He himself always prized the Russian abacus, and considered this invention as its advanced model. With his "Auto-Abacus", Bunyakovskiy performed numerous meteorological calculations. It was especially convenient for addition, during the summing of large amounts of minor values. As mechanical device, it was not perfect. Since it was very sensitive to vibrations, it could easily lose the correct setting. Also, there was no inertial compensator. V. G. von Bool noticed that: "The academician Bunyakovskiy was obviously not familiar with Kummer's Counter, which was simple and perfect".
The "mechanical abacus" of Bunyakovskiy was never used in practice, other than in Bunyakovskiy's own work. A compact and reliable calculator, a greatly improved model of the "abacus" of unknown authorship, was made several years later but in spite of its higher technical performance it was also not implemented. By this time, the Thomas arithmometer had been in production for more than 30 years. The principle used by Bunyakovskiy originated in the 17th century. He died on December 12th 1889 in St. Petersburg.
(Aus Igor A. Apokin: Bunyakovskiy and his "Auto-Abacus" translated by Alexander Y. Nitussov; Dank an Timo Leipälä für den Beitrag)
siehe blauer Kasten unten
Wichtige Maschinen und Geräte:
siehe blauer Kasten unten
- Russische Akademie der Wissenschaften
- In Schranz 1953 "Addiermaschinen einst und jetzt", S. 122, wird in der chronologischen Tabelle angemerkt: Bouniakowsky, Samostchoty, Rußland, ähnlich Pacal
- In D'Ocagne 1905 S. 28, Kap. 184.108.40.206, wird angemerkt, dass der Samostchoty von Bouniakowsky (1867) ein Abkömmling der Pascal-Maschine ist. Hier wird außerdem auf "Philos. Trans., Vol. IX, p. 438" hingewiesen
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